An allele is a variant form of a given gene, meaning it is one of two or more versions of a known mutation at the same place on a chromosome. A gene codes a certain hereditary trait, whereby different versions of a gene can have more or less different consequences for that trait in an organism. Every variety of a gene is called an allele (source Wikipedia).

Breed standard

A breed standard in pets consists of a number of rules that describe the ideal representative of the breed. A judge uses the standard to judge to what extent individual animals approach the ideal (source Wikipedia).

Coefficient of inbreeding

The inbreeding or kinship coefficient is the expected decrease in heterozygotes and depends on the degree of kinship of both parents. where nᵥ = number of generations on father's side nₘ = number of generations on mother's side (source Wikipedia).


Coefficient of inbreeding: see inbreeding coefficient.


The study of the dog is referred to as cynology. Cynology is not a recognized scientific discipline (discipline). It is a professional term that is mainly used by breeders and trainers. A kynologist is someone who deals with dogs.




Embark is a dog genomics and biotechnology company based in Boston, Massachusetts. The company offers dog DNA testing services to consumers, breeders and veterinarians (source Wikipedia).

Estimated breeding value

Estimated breeding values are the value of an individual as a genetic parent. The lower the heritability of a trait under selection, the slower the population will improve.


The Fédération cynologique internationale (FCI) is an international federation of a number of national kennel clubs (source: Wikipedia).


This program combines all genetic and clinical data from dogs. It produces breeding advice from this information. In the program, the breeder enters the name of his or her bitch and receives a ranking off males that are most suitable for her (source: website Universiteit Utrecht). Genetic diversity and results of health tests are taken into account, and care is taken that no sufferers of hereditary disorders for which a DNA test is available are born.


Member of the group of dogs that formed the basis of a current breed, so from which the breed was created.

Gene pool

The gene pool is the set of all genes, or genetic information, in any population, usually of a particular species.The gene pool is the material with which the population can adapt to its environment through natural selection (source Wikipedia).

Genetic diversity

The total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species. Genetic diversity serves as a way for populations to adapt to changing environments. With more variation, it is more likely that some individuals in a population will possess variations of alleles that are suited for the environment. Those individuals are more likely to survive to produce offspring bearing that allele. The population will continue for more generations because of the success of these individuals. (source Wikipedia).


The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of any individual, which determines one of its characteristics (phenotype). Genotype is one of three factors that determine phenotype, along with inherited factors, epigenetic factors and non-inherited environmental factors. Not all organisms with the same genotype look or act the same way because appearance and behavior are modified by environmental and growing conditions. Likewise, not all organisms that look alike necessarily have the same genotype (source Wikipedia).

Giant dogbreed

A collective name for dog breeds that on average become very large and heavy. There are no fixed guidelines, although people often talk about 50 kilos or more.


An organism is heterozygous for a certain trait, if it has two different forms of a gene. This means that for a certain trait that is located at a certain place on the chromosomes, it has two different copies (source Wikipedia).


An organism is homozygous for a certain trait if it has two identical copies of a gene in a chromosome pair. This can happen if both parents pass on the same allele for a gene to their offspring (source Wikipedia).


Inbreeding is a scientific concept of crossing within a species, subspecies, or breed of closely related individuals. The relationship between the two parents is greater than the average inbreeding coefficient of the total population (source Wikipedia).

Inbreeding depression

Inbreeding generally leads to a reduced genetic variation of populations: inbreeding depression (source Wikipedia).


Kinship indicates to what extent two animals are genetically similar. If two parent animals have offspring, they each pass on 50% of their genes to the young animal. The animal is therefore 50% related to its father and 50% related to its mother (source


Cross between a sighthound and a non-sighthound.

Mean kinship

Mean Kinship is a value per animal that indicates the kinship of this animal with the entire current population of the breed. A low Mean Kinship value means that the animal has (relatively) no relationship and is therefore genetically important. Mean Kinship as a tool has been developed and used within zoos to preserve the diversity of endangered species. Mean Kinship is even more suitable for dog breeds for many reasons. Note that Mean Kinship focuses on diversity and therefore health for the WHOLE breed, and not on a specific litter (source


Cross between different breeds and no common ancestors. This is the practice of introducing unrelated genetic material into a breeding line (source Wikipedia).


Family tree certificate issued by an official registry. In Holland de Raad van Beheer.


The phenotype of an organism is the composite of the organism's observable characteristics or traits. The term covers the organism's morphology or physical form and structure, its developmental processes, its biochemical and physiological properties, its behavior, and the products of behavior. An organism's phenotype results from two basic factors: the expression of an organism's genetic code, or its genotype, and the influence of environmental factors. Both factors may interact, further affecting phenotype. (source Wikipedia).

Poacher dog

Or a ‘real’ Lurcher. A dog specifically bred to help poachers in their activities, a real working dog.


A population is a group of organisms of the same species that are not separated in time or place from each other and can therefore (theoretically) reproduce with each other (source Wikipedia).

Population genetics

Population genetics is a part of biology that deals with the genetics of populations (source Wikipedia).

Purebred dog

A dog with a pedigree from a body authorized to issue pedigree certificates. In the Netherlands, that is the Raad van Beheer.


With socialization a dog learns to accept the proximity of other living beings and to deal with them in a social way (source


A studbook is a list with information and pedigree of animals. A distinction is made between a closed and open studbook. The closed only contains the registered animals and the open version also contains animals of unknown descent (source Wikipedia).